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List the 4 kinds of causes Thomas Aquinas borrows from Aristotle. (Check page 111f.)From page 111f “Aristotle names the kinds of causes and reduces them to four types. He notes first that cause means the immanent matter within which anything comes to be and that exists within it. This he says in order to emphasize its difference from privation or a contrary state from which something is said to originate but that does not stay within, as when something white is made from something black or nonwhite. But whenever any statue is fashioned from bronze or cruet from silver, these materials are within the product, for bronze is not eliminated by statute nor silver by cruet. These things are material causes. Second, cause refers to the form or structure or type of thing. Such is the formal cause, and it brings about an effect in two ways: either as an intrinsic form (when it is called a specific form), or as the extrinsic form after whose likeness the thing is fashioned, and in this way the exemplar of a thing is called its form, which accounts for Plato’s saying that ideas were forms. The genus and species of anything that the definition of its nature states is determined by the form. Hence, the form that is what the Aristotelian “what it was for it to be” means is that which determines what a thing is, for the definition, although it includes the material parts, emphasizes the form. Third, cause signifies the first principle of change and of rest when it is the moving or efficient cause. Aristotle speaks indiscriminately of change and rest, for natural motion and rest are related to the same cause as are violent movement and forced rest. He cites two instances of of the adviser whose counsel causes a certain policy, and of the father motion, namely, will and natural determinism. Generally speaking, all makers are causes of what is made, and all changers of changing things. That is rightly classified as an efficient cause when it makes anything in any way in regard to substance or accidents. Aristotle links maker with changer; the former is the cause of a thing, the latter of its becoming. Fourth, causes signifies the aim, that for the sake of which something is. Health, for example, is the cause of going for a walk. The question, “Why?” expects a cause. And this involves not only the ultimate aim for which the efficient cause acts likewise all the intervening means.” Arts & Humanities Philosophy PHILO 1100